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By Pietro Grilli di Cortona, Cecilia Manzi, Aline Pennisi, Federica Ricca, Bruno Simeone

This monograph deals a scientific quantitative method of the research, evaluate, and layout of electoral platforms. this day, electoral reform is of outrage to child democracies in addition to many aged ones. The authors use mathematical versions and automated techniques, whilst attainable, to unravel many of the difficulties that come up within the comparability of present platforms in addition to within the development of latest ones. One virtue of the ebook is the emphasis on unmarried- and multiple-criteria optimization tools. This robust device equipment might help political researchers assessment and select a suitable electoral procedure. A normal formal version is incorporated in addition to a coding procedure to explain, determine, and classify electoral structures. review standards and the corresponding functionality signs are mentioned.

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8, where the asterisks (*) stand for ordinal ballots according to Rae's terminology, while the remaining ones are categorical. BALLOT List ballot Preference ballot Single preference Cumulated ballot* Ranking ballot* Multiple preference Homogeneous Heterogeneous* Fig. 8. Classification of the possible ballot types. The set of all possible ballots in district j will be denoted by flj. We denote by fl the fc-tuple (Qi,^, • • • ,^fe)- If the elements of fZj are list ballots, then \Slj\ — lj is the number of lists in district j.

With respect to plurality it is less disadvantageous for the smaller parties, and with respect to proportional systems it requires that coalitions between parties be made before and not after the vote. So, depending on the electoral system, different features might encourage vote participation, but the political tradition, the evolution of society, the structure of the governing institutions, and the history of a country cannot be put aside in the analysis of this kind of phenomena. 2 The Number of Political Parties The number of parties that constitute the political system has always been considered an important parameter to describe the complex network of competitive relationships between the different actors of the system and, in particular, between the parties, the institutions, and the electors themselves.

1. A GENERAL FORMAL MODEL 23 are invoked, or the election is repeated. A similar remark applies also to other majoritarian systems. Then the unique seat allocated to district j goes to list Lij and the mapping a assigns this seat to the only candidate in L^. Double Ballot This method, also known as the French system, is articulated into two electoral rounds completed in a brief lapse of time. During the first round, seats are assigned only to those candidates who have received an absolute majority of votes, that is, over 50% of the total preferences in a district.

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