By Terrance McGovern, Bolling Smith, Peter Bull
American Coastal Defences 1885-1950 КНИГИ ;ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ American Coastal Defences 1885-1950 (Fortress forty four) ByTerrance McGovernPublisher:Os Publishing2006 64PagesISBN: 1841769223PDF19 MBA new around of fortification development begun within the usa and its out of the country territories within the late-19th century, which benefited from the most recent expertise and the rise in America's around the globe financial stature. This publication presents a concise creation to the layout, improvement and function of yank coastal defenses within the 'modern interval' (1885-1950), a interval outlined by means of concrete, metal, and robust breech-loading rifles. jam-packed with interval and modern day photos of the fortifications, and written by means of a number one professional, it covers the emplacements, weaponry, apparatus, and folks that defended their kingdom in instances of serious swap and uncertainty.sharingmatrixletitbit zero
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Additional resources for American Coastal Defences 1885-1950
While early batteries had thick concrete walls, the thickness of the vertical concrete was reduced, since three feet of sand was cheaper than one foot of concrete, and equally effective. Battery design evolved considerably over 25 years. The engineers built the first batteries without practical tests, mOdifying earlier designs as little as possible. As they gained practical experience, they modified and improved their designs, enlarging magazines and improving waterproofing and ventilation. Some devices were retained, such as voice tubes; despite the general adoption of the telephone, the army continued to build and use them.
The structure housed the harbor defense command post. Battery McCook-Reynolds today is open to the public as part of the Gateway NRA, NPS. FOLLOWING PAGE Electricity The first Endicott-Taft batteries did not need electricity. They had no motors, and kerosene lanterns supplied light. Soon, however, electricity was necessary for ammunition hoists, as well as the motors now on gun carriages. Although civilians were beginning to adopt alternating current, the army required direct current for both motors and searchlights.
The one unusual feature was three 8in. bar bette batteries. Like Oahu's batteries, each mounted two navy MkVI Mod3AZ guns on Ml carriages, but the battery layout was similar to the one used in San Diego in 1935. One unique battery was two·story, with a reserve magazine on the lower level. Another wartime development was the fixed defenses of Puerto Rico and Roosevelt Roads, where 6in. 200-series, 155mm, and casemated 12in. batteries were built. Other batteries as large as 16in. were never completed.