By J. Bruce Amstutz
Whilst Soviet army forces invaded Afghanistan in past due 1979, the invasion was once, instantly, an try to retailer a tottering Marxist executive and a caution to either East and West that the Brezhnev Doctrine of "necessary intervention" will be enforced.
Dr. J. Bruce Amstutz, U. S. cost d’affaires in Kabul from 1977 to 1980, starts his therapy of the 1st 5 years of Soviet career with an historic assessment of years of Russian meddling in Afghan affairs. He follows this account with a first-hand document of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, army, and fiscal views. one of the very important concerns Dr. Amstutz discusses are the varied Afghan political factions - pro-Soviet and resistance - their leaders, the human rights and refugee difficulties, diplomatic efforts to settle the clash, and Soviet measures to repress and indoctrinate the Afghans.
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Additional info for Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation
This was the lowest category of Embassy in the State Department's internal ranking system, which determines pay and perquisites of the Ambassador and, to some extent, the Ambassador's staff. Though the State Department emphasized that this action merely was part of a worldwide review of Embassy categories, many at the Kabul Embassy saw the change as indicative of the little importance Foggy Bottom gave to Afghanistan. • A second Soviet objective seemingly was to draw Afghanistan into a dependent relationship vulnerable and responsive to Soviel pressure.
0 Over a period of 20 years, Soviet pressure on the Afghans succeeded in getting the Afghans to agree lo limit all foreign economic aid projects slated for the northern. Soviet-bordering provinces to just the Soviets. 31 Later, the protest was applied to the presence of nationals of all NATO countries. Finally, the pressure evolved into a demand that the Afghans prohibit the working presence of any foreign aid experts in the northern region except the Soviets. 33 Another example of Soviet influence was Afghan acquiescence in principle in 1952 to the Soviet request that foreigners generally be prohibited from entering Afghan-Soviet border areas.
H. 1 10 Afghanistan The 1907 St. Petersburg Convention seemingly laid to rest the specter of Russian political and territorial ambitions toward Afghanistan. The "Great Game1' ostensibly was over. By mutual consent Afghanistan had emerged as a semi-independent buffer state with British influence dominant in foreign affairs. However, in little more than a decade two developments would change the situation: a communist party would take power in Russia, and Afghanistan would win back its right to conduct its foreign relations.