By M. Riad El-Ghonemy
Affluence and Poverty within the heart East is an advent to the political economic climate of the center East, targeting its so much salient good points - power poverty and severe inequality. El-Ghonemy analyses the criteria influencing the zone, together with its certain old, non secular and cultural combine, in addition to its monetary foundations and sorts of corruption. for every issue he employs case-studies drawn from through the sector, from Turkey to Sudan and Morocco to Iran. within the ultimate part El-Ghomeny discusses attainable options to the demanding situations dealing with the sector, together with attainable makes use of of a peace dividend, and the function of democracy.
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8). 0). a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. a. 9 10 6 6 9 9 20 30 48 3 Undernutrition in children under 5 as % of total age group, c. a. a. = not available. a Countries are listed in descending order of GNP per person, 1991. b See definition of Food Security Index in note 7 of this chapter. c Income and not consumption expenditure. Column 2 is calculated as the ratio of the hightest 20 per cent in column 1. Sources: Column 1, World Development Report 1994: Indicators (World Bank, 1978–96), except Israel: Achdut (1993) and Egypt, Chapter 10, pp.
The latter was realized through assigned agents (deys, janissaries, makhzan tribes and influential families) in exchange for the granting of vast areas of land and the exercise of absolute local power. Britain, France and Italy tended to secure the supply of food and raw materials for their own home countries, and to expand markets for their industrial products and businessmen’s contracts, and to provide employment for their citizens. In addition, France and Italy intended to settle the poor sections of their own populations on the most fertile land in North Africa.
Both violations are manifested in fraudulent transactions, embezzlement of public funds, exploitation of low-income groups, the lending of money at unfair rates of interest (riba or usury), charging tenants unfair rent or evicting them without compensation, the exercise of monopoly power for selfish purposes, and so forth. Violations and practised injustice also include the grabbing of tribal and public lands by colonial powers, influential politicians, corruption and other means of unethical income transfers.