By Bruce S. Hall
The mobilization of neighborhood principles approximately racial distinction has been vital in producing, and intensifying, civil wars that experience happened because the finish of colonial rule in all the nations that straddle the southern fringe of the Sahara barren region. From Sudan to Mauritania, the racial different types deployed in modern conflicts usually hearken again to an older background within which blackness might be equated with slavery and non-blackness with predatory and uncivilized banditry. This publication lines the improvement of arguments approximately race over a interval of greater than 350 years in a single very important position alongside the southern fringe of the Sahara desolate tract: the Niger Bend in northern Mali. utilizing Arabic records held in Timbuktu, in addition to neighborhood colonial resources in French and oral interviews, Bruce S. corridor reconstructs an African highbrow background of race that lengthy predated colonial conquest, and which has persevered to orient inter-African family ever because.
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Extra resources for A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600-1960 (African Studies)
Scott Reese (Leiden: Brill, 2004), 42–3; Hélène Claudot-Hawad, “Identité et altérité d’un point de vue touareg. Eléments pour un débat,” in Touaregs et autres Sahariens entre plusieurs mondes. Définitions et redéfinitions de soi et des autres. Les Cahiers de l’IREMAM 7–8, ed. Claudot-Hawad (Aix-en-Provence: CNRS, 1996), 14. 5 Gao is mentioned as an important trade center by the ninth-century Arabic chronicler al-Yaʿqubī (d. 7 Independent Songhay-speaking rulers who controlled the eastern Niger Bend were defeated and incorporated into the Mali Empire by the fourteenth century, if not earlier.
In the seventeenth-century chronicles that recount the history of the Niger Bend, the Fulbe are described as indifferent to religion (Islam) and inclined 5 Sam Nixon, “Excavating Essouk-Tadmakka (Mali): New Archaeological Investigations of Early Islamic Trans-Saharan Trade,” Azania 44, no. 2 (2009): 247. ammad (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 7–10. F. de Moraes Farias, Arabic Medieval Inscriptions from the Republic of Mali: Epigraphy, Chronicles, and Songhay-Tuareg History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), cli–clii.
4 (2008): 920–48. Introduction 21 conceptual language and framework, and this aided in communication and assimilation of the other’s ideas. But it would be a big mistake not to recognize that this was a two-way process, and that European constructions of knowledge about African people evolved as a result. The part of this book that deals with the colonial era focuses on the relationships and dialogue that occurred between French colonial officials and Africans, and between Africans themselves in the Niger Bend region of what is today northern Mali.