Download A History of India, Third Edition by Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund PDF

By Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund

A heritage of India is a compact synthesis proposing the grand sweep of Indian background from antiquity to the current. It continues to be the definitive textual content at the state. This new version has been completely revised, containing new examine, and an updated preface, index and dateline. The authors research the key political, financial, social and cultural forces that have formed the background of the Indian subcontinent during this survey. This vintage textual content is an authoritative certain account which emphasises and analyses the stuctural development of Indian heritage.

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The dating of these texts and of the cultures that produced them has been debated for a long time by Indologists. The famous Indian nationalist, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, wrote a book on The Arctic Home of the Vedas in which he maintained that the Vedas could be dated back to the sixth or fifth millennia BC. He based his conclusions on the interpretation of references to positions of the stars in the text which could be used by astronomers for a detailed calculation of the respective date. The German Indologist Hermann Jacobi independently arrived at a very similar conclusion and suggested the middle of the fifth millennium as the date of the Vedas.

For instance, it was a planned city of rectangular shape, about 750 feet long and following a north-south axis. The city was fortified and the houses were constructed with adobe bricks of 10 by 20 by 30 centimetres. The sewerage system was constructed with regular bricks fired in a kiln. Kalibangan’s ceramics produced on the potter’s wheel were of excellent quality and nicely decorated, their patterns being clearly different from those of the subsequent period. But since this early Kalibangan had so many features similar to those of the later Mature Harappan period some scholars refer to it as Early Harappan rather than Pre-Harappan.

Critics have doubted this interpretation and have pointed out that the ‘dock’ may have been a water reservoir which served the city and was also used for irrigating the neighbouring fields. But, regardless of the use of this basin, there seems to be no doubt that Lothal was an important trading centre and a major sea port. Many tools, stone beads and seals were found in Lothal, among them the famous ‘Persian Gulf seal’. Probably Lothal not only served longdistance trade but also supplied the cities on the Indus with raw materials such as cotton from Gujarat and copper from Rajasthan.

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