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The Aeolic-speaking areas of the mainland must once have been contiguous, and probably extended further west and south than in the classical period, by which time Thessalian was geographically separated from Boeotian by North-West Greek, and the dialects of both western Thessaly and Boeotia show clear signs of relatively recent North-West Greek influence. In western Thessaly, for example, the genitive singular of the second declension ends in [-o:] (later -ou [-u:]), the regular formation in NorthWest Greek, and distinct from the eastern suffix -oi [-oi]: both these forms < earlier -oio [-ojo], by loss of [j] + contraction, and apocopation, respectively.

8b)) and the forms and ka [ai, ka:] ‘if, ever’ (see (8g)). Note that the archaic alphabet used on Crete at this time did not distinguish voiceless [amphi-], [p, k] from aspirated [ph, kh], employing only P and K (cf. 30 Ancie nt G re e k [darkhná:n] ‘drachma (acc)’). Some regular Cretan characteristics include psilosis (loss of initial aspiration, as in [os] ‘who’ beside Attic [hos]), assimilation of [zd] to [dd] (as in [katadikaddétto:] ‘let him condemn’ beside Attic [katdikazdéto:]), short-vowel aorist/perfective subjunctives (as originally in this athematic formation, and guaranteed for Cretan by later spellings: contrast [lagáse:] ‘s/he should release’ with corresponding Attic forms modelled on the longvowel thematic subjunctives of the present/imperfective stem), and thematic infinitives in -en [-en] (cf.

D) The emergence and development of Aeolic: García-Ramón (1975); Ruijgh (1978a); Brixhe (2006: 49–55); Vottéro (2006: 137–42). The spread of Peloponnesian Doric both westwards to Italy and Sicily and eastwards across the southern Aegean, the presence of Aeolic speakers in Lesbos and northern parts of the coast of Asia Minor, the close relationship between Arcadian and the geographically remote Cypriot, and the existence of an Ionic dialect continuum across the central Aegean extending into central and southern regions of the Asia Minor coast can all be readily explained by reference to the extensive colonization movements from the Greek mainland which began during the so-called Dark Age following the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization and continued down to the 6th century bc.

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